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Ensure smooth piston movement and reduce frictional resistance
May 04, 2018

Piston ring functions include four functions: sealing, adjusting oil (oil control), heat conduction (heat transfer), and guide (support). Sealing: Refers to sealing the gas, not allowing the gas in the combustion chamber to leak into the crankcase, minimizing the amount of gas leakage and improving thermal efficiency. Leakage will not only reduce the power of the engine, but will also deteriorate the engine oil. This is the main task of the gas ring. Regulating the oil (controlling oil): scraping the excess oil on the cylinder wall and making the cylinder wall thinner The thin oil film ensures the normal lubrication of the cylinder and the piston and the ring, which is the main task of the oil ring. In modern high-speed engines, special attention is paid to the role of the piston ring control oil film; heat conduction: the heat of the piston is transferred to the cylinder sleeve through the piston ring, that is, it acts as a cooling. According to reliable data, 70 to 80% of the heat received by the piston crown in the non-cooled piston is dissipated through the piston ring to the cylinder wall, and 30 to 40% of the cooling piston is transmitted to the cylinder through the piston ring. The wall disperses; support: The piston ring keeps the piston in the cylinder, prevents the piston from directly contacting the cylinder wall, ensures smooth movement of the piston, reduces frictional resistance, and prevents the piston from knocking. The piston of a typical gasoline engine uses two air rings and an oil ring, while a diesel engine usually uses two air rings and an oil ring.

The forces acting on the piston ring are the gas pressure, the elasticity of the ring itself, the inertial force of the ring reciprocating motion, the friction between the ring and the cylinder and the ring groove, as shown in the figure. Due to these forces, the ring will produce basic movements such as axial movement, radial movement and turning movement. In addition, due to its characteristics of the movement of the piston ring, accompanied by irregular movement, inevitably appear axial irregular movement caused by the suspension and axial vibration, radial irregular motion and vibration, twisting movement. These irregular movements often prevent the piston rings from functioning. When designing a piston ring, it is necessary to give full play to favorable movement and control the unfavorable aspect.


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